Tips for Using Real-Time Transcription


What is the role of the CART Reporter?

A CART Reporter's role is to facilitate communication for Deaf and hard-of-hearing students. CART Reporters enter everything that is spoken in the classroom into his/her equipment, which the Deaf or hard-of-hearing student can read. CART Reporters are to remain neutral and do not share personal opinions or advice.  Furthermore, CART Reporters are obligated to respect confidentiality.

Why use CART?

Some people who are Deaf or hard-of-hearing grew up hearing or were educated in the "oral tradition," and therefore do not know sign language. Other communication accommodations including sign language interpreters or assistive listening devices are not effective for some Deaf or hard-of-hearing people. For these individuals, CART or real-time captioning may provide an effective adjunct to seeing exactly what is said in the classroom.

Tips for Working with a CART Reporter :

Many of the tips that follow are specific to in-person classes, though may assist in demonstrating the spirit of accessibility that is still needed in our current remote context. For online courses in the remote environment, the DPRC has the following specifc recommendations: 
  • Please ensure our office is aware of all scheduling items pertaining to your course, including necessary Zoom links. Our office will provide you with contact information for the service provider(s) assigned to your course and ask that they are also included on any course notifications, along with This ensures service providers are able to participate in the correct Zoom meeting room at the correct time. 
  • The National Deaf Center on PostSecondary Outcomes has great recommendations for Instructors teaching Deaf students online
  • Ensuring service providers can hear lecture content clearly and that students can see their service providers on Zoom are important. You can assist by ensuring the class all has clear expectations for engagement on Zoom. Academic Technology has some great recommendations that will assist in making your remote course more accessible. 

Don't hestiate to contact us at with any other questions. 

  • Before the class starts, it is helpful to meet with the CART Reporter to explain what will be covered. Provide the CART Reporter with a copy of the course syllabus and/or other print materials for review and to follow as the class progresses.
  • When setting up at the beginning of the class, the CART Reporter and the individual using CART will work with you to figure out the best positioning for each, to ensure effective and comfortable communication.
  • Speak directly to the Deaf or hard-of-hearing student, not the CART Reporter. For example, say "Do you have anything you would like to add?" rather than "Does he/she have anything to add?"
  • Direct eye contact. While direct contact is valued particularly in one-to-one interactions, direct eye contact on the part of the Deaf or hard-of-hearing individual is not always possible, as the deaf or hard-of-hearing individual will need to watch the captioning screen.
  • Try to face the class when you speak. Some Deaf and hard-of-hearing students prefer to follow a lecture through lipreading and use CART as a backup when they cannot understand.
  • Speak clearly, in a normal tone, and at a normal pace. If there is a problem with keeping up, the CART Reporter or the Deaf or hard-of-hearing student may ask the speaker to slow down or repeat a word or sentence for clarification.
  • Ensure the Deaf or hard-of-hearing student's participation. Remember that the CART Reporter is a few words behind the speaker. Therefore allow time for the Deaf or hard-of-hearing student to obtain all the information and ask questions.
  • When there are audio-visual presentations, allow the Deaf or hard-of-hearing student using CART the time to both follow along with the presentation, as well as to look at what is being displayed visually. If possible, provide "advance copies" of the visual presentation to the deaf or hard-of-hearing student prior to the presentation.
  • Use overheads or handouts. This is especially important when you will be reading extensive passages aloud. Rather than having to watch the captioning screen, the student can read the passages in print. If you cannot provide written materials or cite a page number in the students' text, remember to speak at a normal pace. Most people speed up when they read written materials aloud.
  • Give the Deaf or hard-of-hearing student sufficient time to read any written materials before you speak. Deaf and hard-of-hearing students receive their information visually. If you speak while they are reading, they will not be able to watch the captioning screen and read simultaneously.
  • Permit only one person to speak at a time during group discussions. It is difficult for a CART Reporter to follow several people speaking at once. Ask for a brief pause between speakers to permit the CART Reporter to finish before the next speaker starts. It can be helpful to ask people to raise their hands and wait to speak after they have been recognized. This allows the deaf or hard-of-hearing student to see who is commenting.

For additional information or further assistance, please contact:

Disability Programs & Resource Center (DPRC)
Tel.: 415/338-2472 (voice/TTY)
Fax: 415/338-1041